Sunday, February 17, 2013

Ukrainian Inventors and Scientists


   Many Ukrainian inventors and scientists have made a great contribution to the world science for the benefit of Ukraine.
    Mykola Kybalchych (1853—1881) was born in the Chernihiv Region. He died at the age of 28, but he managed to create a great deal. While waiting for capital punishment after an attempt upon Alexander II life he prepared in a prison cell an original design of an aircraft with rocket engine.
     Petro Kapitsa (1894—1984) was a noted scientist in the field of nuclear physics and technologies of super powerful magnetic fields. Petro Kapitsa was awarded with the Nobel Prize for his works. He was a Ukrainian who made a great contribution into development of physics working in England and Russia.
    Anatoly Oleksandrov (1903—1994), another Ukrainian inventor and scientist, was working in the field of nuclear physics. He was born in the village of Tarashcha not far from Kyiv. Anatoly Oleksandrov took part in the creation of nuclear technology. Under his supervision the first in the world atomic-powered vessel was created.
    Serhiy Koroliov (1907—1966) was born in the city of Zhytomyr. He was an outstanding, creator of the practical space engineering. In 1924 he finished a professional technical school in Odesa. In 1924—1926 he studied in Kyiv Politechnic Institute. In 1930 he graduated from Moscow higher technical school and at the same time he finished Moscow pilot, school.
      Under his supervision new rockets were designed and launched. Among them were ballistic and geographical rockets, rockets-carriers and spacecraft "Vostok" and "Voskhod", the first automatic interplanet station "Zond". The spacecraft designed under his guidance made real the flights to Venus and Mars and walking in the outer space.                   
  Vocabulary: benefit — користь,  vessel — корабель, nuclear —ядерний to launch запускати,     supervision — керівництво,  guidance — керівництво

 Yevhen Paton was born in 1870 in  a French town Nizza.  Paton was an outstanding constructor  and a scientist. Since 1929 Paton was the member of  the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. He graduated from the Polytechnical  Institute of Dresden in 1894 and St  Petersburg Institute of Civil Engineers  in 1896. In 1904—1939 Paton was the  professor of Kyiv Polytechnical  Institute. Heading the laboratory of testing  the bridges, he formulated the main  scientific principles and discovered  the scientific technology of testing the  bridges.
In 1896—1929 he constructed  35 bridges, among them the main  bridge across the Dnieper in Kyiv. Now this bridge bears his name. In 1929 Paton organized the  laboratory of electric welding,   which became an institute   in 1934. Yevhen Paton died in 1953 in Kyiv.
Vocabulary:   constructor  — будівник, civil — цивільний, to discover — відкривати,                                 electric welding  — електрозварювання, to bear — носити                                              
 Questions: 
1.  Where and when was Yevhen Paton born?       
2.  What was he?
3.  What can you tell about Yevhen Paton?            
4. What laboratory did he organize in 1929?
5.  What are his main contributions to the Ukrainian science? 

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