Mykola Mykhailovych Amosov (1913-2002)
is probably best-remembered for his inventions to overcome heart defects. He also introduced lung surgery to Ukraine and his research helped improve the treatment of lung disease.
Furthermore, he worked in the field of cybernetics: the study of how actions in one part of a system affect other parts of the same system. This led him to put forward theories on how different parts of the body function, including the brain. His work in this area brought him international recognition.
He also managed to find time to be a novelist.
Serhii Pavlovych Koroliov (1907-1966)
has been called the father of astronautics.
He was the leading rocket engineer during
the 1950s and 1960s when he worked on
the Sputnik and Vostok space projects.
Koroliov's interest in aviation started early
and by the time he was eighteen he had
designed his own glider. It was not until
the 1950s that he became interested in
the space industry. He came up with the
idea of sending a satellite into space. At the same time, US scientists were beginning to have similar ideas. Koroliov managed to persuade
the Soviet authorities that his team could be the first to do it. Following this, he was able to pull off several firsts in the 'space race'. He was working on plans to send men to the moon when he died in 1962. His association with space continues as there is a crater on the moon named after him.
lllia lllich Mechnikov (1845-1916)
took an interest in natural history from an
early age and used to lecture his younger
brothers and friends on this subject. He first
started working in marine biology. Later, he became
interested in immunology and took up the
study of how organisms fight disease. This
area was of personal interest to Mechnikov
because his first wife died of tuberculosis
and his second wife almost died of typhoid
fever - both common diseases at the time. Through his research, scientists gained a much better understanding of how cells protect organisms. He is most famous for his research on the immune system. He won many awards for his work and in 1908 he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
Yevhen Oskarovych Paton (1870-1953)
played a major role in developing the way
bridges were built and designed. He did
this by looking into the ways metals can
be welded together. From his research he
developed a procedure to work out how
strong joints of bridges and other structures
would be. In 1934, Paton founded the
Electric Welding Institute, later named after
him. Then, in
was built in Kyiv
using many different aspects of his technology.